The main topic of this paper is the issue of the development of scientific literacy of students in the field of pre-school and elementary school pedagogy. The theoretical part is dedicated to outlining basic terms, such as scientific literacy, education in natural sciences, the field of study of pre-school and elementary school pedagogy. It presents the outcomes of research in scientific literacy of students of the field of pre-school and elementary school pedagogy in Slovakia. It analyses the concept of natural sciences education, designs a development programme of natural sciences education in the given study field. At the empirical level, it presents the results of experimental verification of the designed concepts of education and on the basis of research results, it presents recommendations for the educational reality.