The article presents the issue of the development of linguistic competence in the context of neurobiological research which points to the functional asymmetry of the brain. A reflection of this asymmetry is, among other things, lateralization of paired organs of the body. The author presents the results of studies indicating a connection between the development of lateralization and the development of language. She also emphasizes the need for therapeutic intervention for children with ambidexterity, cross or left-sided laterality. Moreover, the aim of the article is to sensitize people working with pre-school children to the issue of delays in dominance of paired organs. This is because delayed lateralization is in many cases accompanied by speech disorders.