The primary intention of the presented paper is to contribute to the understanding of 1. what deductive-hypothetical reasoning is and 2. what deductive inference is, manifested in the ability to decode and learn words from context. The WCT - WORD CONTEXT TEST (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan & Kramer, 2001) was used for measuring the two dependent variables (level of hypothetical thinking
and ability to infer the meaning of words from context). This test is a separate part of the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System test battery (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan & Kramer, 2001). On the basis of the results obtained in the process of the administration of the tool on a sample of 9–10 year-old pupils attending standard schools and pupils educated in classes for the gifted, we explore the level
of hypothetical-deductive thinking in both groups of pupils. We use the obtained data to make the following analysis of the relationship between a pupil’s intelligence and: a) level of hypothetical reasoning; and b) level of ability to infer the meaning of words from context among standard pupils; analysis of differences in: a) level of hypothetical reasoning; and b) level of ability to infer the meaning of words in context between gifted pupils and standard pupils.